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恩施土家的wegene原来是看过的,和湖北汉族差别不小,和华南人很接近,非常南方.从服饰和文化来看,土家族也是更hmong-mien一些,虽然他们说藏缅语,但是和周围的hmong-mien的接触不容忽视
无诸王 发表于 2017-8-1 10:40
如果个别个体有可能。但我看过韩国人希腊人的分析,恩施土家群体介于南北汉人之间。
O3a3c* (M134+, M117-)
恩施土家的wegene原来是看过的,和湖北汉族差别不小,和华南人很接近,非常南方.从服饰和文化来看,土家族也是更hmong-mien一些,虽然他们说藏缅语,但是和周围的hmong-mien的接触不容忽视
无诸王 发表于 2017-8-1 10:40
土家族很华南吗?我不觉得,他们的常染应该是介于南北之间
南方民族就是南方民族,不需要有些别有用心的人给我们满世界找祖宗,一会儿说通古斯是南方人一会儿又说日韩是南方人,你们编故事编得累不累
土家族很华南吗?我不觉得,他们的常染应该是介于南北之间
MNOPS 发表于 2017-8-4 08:03
wegene的模型下,看那些土家族一般是60%的南方和40%的北方,这不就是典型的华南地区的祖源.湖北汉族的北方则高达60-90%.别忘了wegene的模型里,不论南方汉族还是北方汉族都是显著偏南的
居于汉族的中间,也不见得是介于南北汉族之间,近期的那篇<  A comprehensive map of genetic variation in Han Chinese>有可以看出,汉族的中间点实际上是四川湖南一代,这一代实际上还是典型的南方汉族.
看到一篇文章摘要,是讨论全基因组的。因为找不到文章全文,不想新开一帖,就摆在这儿了。摘要评述了有关不同蒙古部落和地区的基因差异的研究结果。虽然文章没有专门研究有关长相的基因变异,但是一般的看法是有些基因差异会影响长相,所以我想这不算歪楼。

从网页上看,这好像是一个中国人在哥本哈根大学写的博士论文的摘要。摘要包括对几个有许多人参与的大型研究项目的评述,其中之一是对6个蒙古部落和地区的175个样本的20X全基因组测序和分析。

摘要提到的结论之一是,除开汉人,和蒙古人基因交流程度最高的人群是芬兰人。芬兰人和西伯利亚、蒙古及与二者有较近关系的人群有过基因交流。

摘要提到的另一个结论,是分析、比较了蒙古样本和已知的世界其他人群样本的全基因组结果后得出的。大意是支持现代人最初由北向南覆盖东亚的假说。这个结论,这里的多数人大概不会听到就接受,就看谁能先找到文章的全文来看一下了。

摘要原文:
Building high resolution genetic variation map for Mongolians

As one of representative population in East Asia and a typical nomadic ethnic group of the world, Mongolians played a pivotal role in human evolution, including early peopling of Native Americans (at least 10,000 years ago) and recent shaping of population genetic structure of Eurasians (around 1,000 years ago). Harsh environmental conditions and characteristic lifestyle result in extremely high prevalence of several genetic diseases in Mongolians, such as alcohol dependency, obesity, Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) and lipid metabolism related diseases. As invention and wide application of new generation sequencing technologies, the genomes of more and more human populations in the world are decoded, the studies of human population genomics have developed dramatically, which include a few human population studies we participated. We first initiated and performed the 1000 Genomes Project (1000G), completed the sequencing of 2,504 genomes from 26 representative human populations of the world, and constructed the highest resolution human referred genetic variation catalogue so far. It has been extensively used in the studies of human evolution and genetic diseases. We participated the sequencing project of 10,000 British genomes (The UK10K Project), built a reference panel for British, found several novel risk alleles associated with some human disease related phenotypes, and explored the contribution of rare and low-frequency variants to human traits. We took part in the study of Danish genomes project, performed high depth genome sequencing for 150 individuals from 50 trios, built Danish characteristic reference panel, and revealed the features of genetic variations and population genetic structure. We also participated the study of genetic mechanism of skin lightening for East Asians and indicated the pigmentation gene OCA2 play an important role in the convergent skin lightening of East Asians during recent human evolution. However, the genomics research on Mongolians, which attract strong research interests, still remains the levels of using the data of Y chromosome or Mitochondrial genome to explore the paternal or maternal transmission, or carrying out the genetic disease studies based on the data of a small number of variants or partial genomic regions. In the study plan, first, we collected the genomic DNA of a representative Mongolian male individual, performed high coverage whole genome sequencing, de novo assembled a high-quality Mongolian genome. We obtained a Mongolian personal genetic variation catalogue, which contains 3.7 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 0.76 million short insertions and deletions (indels). The functional analysis based on the variants indicated the individual possesses a risk allele that may cause carnitine deficiency. Y haplogroup analysis located the paternal inheritance to the clade D3a, which is the one of oldest lineage in East Asians and present the most common in Tibeto- Burman populations. Through final population genetics analyses, we roughly revealed different levels of gene flows occurred between Mongolians and other different human populations. In further study, we collected a total of 175 samples from six typical Mongolian tribes or regions and carried out the whole genome sequencing with average coverage of 20X. We identified more than 16 million genetic variants and constructed the first high-quality reference panel for Mongolians. Comparative analyses showed that the panel presented the best prediction accuracy in Mongolian population imputation. Through the analyses of phylogeny, genetic clustering and putative ancestor inference, we discovered the genetic structure of the ethnic group presents the features of spreading widely, high admixed and some level of population stratification. In further inferences of demographic history and gene flow events, we found different tribes present diverse population history and observed frequent gene flows among the tribes and between Mongolians and other human populations. In the admixture events, the degree of gene flow between Mongolians and Finns is significantly higher than that between the ethnic group and other non-Han populations. Further analysis showed such high level gene flow occurred between Finns and the groups of Siberians, Mongolians and other close ethnic groups. We finally integrated the data of our Mongolians and other global human populations and constructed higher resolution phylogenetic tree, especially for the East Asians. The phylogenetic relationships present the East Asian distribution of spreading from north to south, which evidently supports the hypothesis of southward dispersal after entering East Asia. In final study, We performed association study for 28 T2D related SNPs reported previous in 966 Mongolian samples, including 469 samples of control group and 497 diagnosed T2D patients of case group. Only 11 SNPs are repeated significant association with T2D in Mongolians. We also observed substantial difference of T2D risk allele frequency between the Mongolian sample and the 1000G Caucasian sample for a few SNPs, including rs6723108 in the gene of TMEM163 whose risk allele reaches near fixation in Mongolian samples. This study confirmed the genetic heterogeneity of T2D in Mongolians and will provide the data support to explore the novel T2D causal variants in the further studies of this ethnic group. Assembly of representative Mongolian genome, building of referred variation catalogue, inference of demographic history, pilot study on T2D in the population and other studies on human population genomics we participated, not only gave us a new understanding to this human ethnic group who live in the northern of East Asia and therefore laid a good foundation for the further studies of evolution and diseases of Mongolians, but also will facilitate the evolution studies and personal precision medicine in Chinese people or East Asians as an important part.

摘要网页:http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/en/catalog/2372465835
芬兰与蒙古人之间的远古交流,怕是前者输入到后者的多。西伯利亚和美洲土著普遍受西欧亚的影响,这是造成他们与其它蒙古人种偏差大的原因。如果不排除这点影响就谈南北起源,不会让人信服的。
O3a3c* (M134+, M117-)
wegene的模型下,看那些土家族一般是60%的南方和40%的北方,这不就是典型的华南地区的祖源.湖北汉族的北方则高达60-90%.别忘了wegene的模型里,不论南方汉族还是北方汉族都是显著偏南的
无诸王 发表于 2017-8-4 08:22
华南在我眼里只包括粤桂琼三省,土家族还不算华南顶多算华中,而且土家族的C3比例较高
南方民族就是南方民族,不需要有些别有用心的人给我们满世界找祖宗,一会儿说通古斯是南方人一会儿又说日韩是南方人,你们编故事编得累不累
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