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Early replacement of West Eurasian male Y chromosomes from the east

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发表于 2019-12-7 14:34 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 cpan0256 于 2019-12-7 14:35 编辑

https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/867317v1

作者:Pille Hallast, Anastasia Agdzhoyan, Oleg Balanovsky, Yali Xue, Chris TylerSmith

Abstract: The genomes of humans outside Africa originated almost entirely from a single migration out ~50,000-60,000 years ago [1,2], followed closely by mixture with Neanderthals contributing ~2% to all non-Africans [3,4]. However, the details of this initial migration remain poorly understood because no ancient DNA analyses are available from this key time period, and present-day autosomal data are uninformative due to subsequent population movements/reshaping [5]. One locus, however, does retain extensive information from this early period: the Y-chromosome, where a detailed calibrated phylogeny has been constructed [6]. Three present-day Y lineages were carried by the initial migration: the rare haplogroup D, the moderately rare C, and the very common FT lineage which now dominates most non-African populations [6,7]. We show that phylogenetic analyses of haplogroup C, D and FT sequences, including very rare deep-rooting lineages, together with phylogeographic analyses of ancient and present-day non-African Y-chromosomes, all point to East/South-east Asia as the origin 50,000-55,000 years ago of all known non-African male lineages (apart from recent migrants). This implies that the initial Y lineages in populations between Africa and eastern Asia have been entirely replaced by lineages from the east, contrasting with the expectations of the serial-founder model [8,9], and thus informing and constraining models of the initial expansion.

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发表于 2019-12-8 11:47 | 显示全部楼层

     从y-C1\C2的现在分布来看,CF大分离,以及y-F内部大分离,应该发生在南亚与东南亚交界一带,而且C2应该是从中国西南部进入中国,之后逐渐向北扩散~

      C1-C2-树形-分布-薛Tyler-2019.png
发表于 2019-12-9 10:50 | 显示全部楼层

No ancient Y-chromosomal data earlier than 45,000 years ago have been reported, but 21
Asian or European males living 30,000-45,000 years ago are documented, and for 18 of them
assignments to C, D or FT have been reported  Ten belong to the C lineage, six from North Asia and four from Europe. The
remaining eight belong to FT, three from North Asia, one from East Asia and four from
Europe. Although the data are limited, two conclusions can be drawn. First, none of the
ancient samples carry Y lineages outside the 23 represented in Figure 1 at 50,000 years ago.
Second, C lineages (both C1a and C1b), now confined to East, Southeast and South Asia plus
Oceania, were more widespread 30,000-40,000 years ago, including in Europe where they
persisted until after 8,000 years ago27, although have now been replaced in Europe by other
lineages.

没有早于45000年前的古代Y染色体数据被报道,但有21名生活在3万-45000年前的亚洲或欧洲男性被记录在案,其中18人被报告分配给C,D或FT,其中10人属于 C单倍群,6人来自北亚,4人来自欧洲。其余8人属于FT,3人来自北亚,1人来自东亚,4人来自欧洲。虽然数据有限,但可以得出两个结论。首先,在5万年前,除了23个Y血统外,没有任何古代样本携带Y血统。第二,C单倍群下面的 C1类型 (C1a和C1b),现在仅限于东亚、东南亚和南亚加上大洋洲,在3万-4万年前更为广泛,包括在欧洲,他们在那里一直持续到8000年前,尽管现在在欧洲已经被其他血统所取代。
2019-12-09_114912.jpg

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发表于 2019-12-8 20:56 | 显示全部楼层
出非洲人群东亚/东南亚二次起源论从Y染色体上是说得通的,从MTDNA上其实也说得通。但是从常染角度来看目前还有难度。
发表于 2019-12-7 15:23 | 显示全部楼层
这个分析好雷
发表于 2019-12-7 16:46 | 显示全部楼层
这篇文献也认可田园洞K2b的分型,看来学术界对田园洞古人属于K2b有共识。回头再仔细看看raw data。
发表于 2019-12-7 20:00 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 wolfgang 于 2019-12-7 20:05 编辑

这篇文章的论点是出非洲人群东亚/东南亚二次起源论。C,D是在中国境内爆发,F是在东南亚爆发。
发表于 2019-12-7 21:00 | 显示全部楼层
除了已经知道的D0外,这篇文章还列出了一些新位点。真正地C*出现在欧洲,C1b*也出现在欧洲,不过都是古代样本。C1b1b出现在东南亚,C1b1a2b似乎又发现了很多新样本,可能是从以前的C*被辨别出来了。中国凉山彝族的F2似乎被重新定义为F2b,原来的F4被定义为F2a,越南还新发现了真正地F*.
发表于 2019-12-7 21:07 | 显示全部楼层
巴尔干半岛上那具3万年前标志为N1c1ab的古人不知道是啥回事?现有的N1c1总共年龄也不到3万年啊。
发表于 2019-12-7 21:23 | 显示全部楼层
在印度新发现了G的样本,被标志为G1,原来的G被标志为G2。老永提到的那个东南亚的H样本看来是被标志为H1b了。M发现了新样本,也在巴布亚岛,被标志为M2,原来的M被标志为M1,两者的分离时间大约是在5万年前。马来西亚发现了新的S样本,被标志为S2,原来的S被标志为S1,另外还有S1b在东南亚被发现。整个S是在4.5万年前左右就扩散开了。
发表于 2019-12-7 21:46 | 显示全部楼层
3万年前左右2个地点检测到了P1,一个是在靠近北极圈的Yana RHS,另外一处看似在贝加尔湖边,不知道是哪个遗址?
发表于 2019-12-8 14:12 | 显示全部楼层
imvivi001 发表于 2019-12-8 11:47
从y-C1\C2的现在分布来看,CF大分离,以及y-F内部大分离,应该发生在南亚与东南亚交界一带,而且C2 ...

文莱和菲律宾以前的C*终于归位了。
发表于 2019-12-8 15:32 | 显示全部楼层
wolfgang 发表于 2019-12-8 14:12
文莱和菲律宾以前的C*终于归位了。


    根据本文,文莱既有C1b1a, 也有C1b1b,看样子距离C1b的老家不太远,呵呵
发表于 2019-12-8 16:31 | 显示全部楼层
如果南线的C*均已被证实为是C1b的下游且真正的C*出现在欧洲,那我认为C2北线起源的可能性更大。
发表于 2019-12-8 16:33 | 显示全部楼层
看来古华南和平文化不仅有C1b,D,F,可能还包括了H和S
发表于 2019-12-8 23:05 | 显示全部楼层
wolfgang 发表于 2019-12-8 20:56
出非洲人群东亚/东南亚二次起源论从Y染色体上是说得通的,从MTDNA上其实也说得通。但是从常染角度来看目前 ...

我觉得目前说这话还为时尚早,我看不出NO和C2是东南亚起源
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