蓝海人类学在线 Ryan WEI's Forum of Anthropology

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发表于 2009-10-3 21:06 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Ancient DNA from the First European Farmers in 7500-Year-Old Neolithic Sites

Wolfgang Haak,1* Peter Forster,2 Barbara Bramanti,1
Shuichi Matsumura,2 Guido Brandt,1 Marc Ta¨nzer,1
Richard Villems,3 Colin Renfrew,2 Detlef Gronenborn,4
Kurt Werner Alt,1 Joachim Burger1

The ancestry of modern Europeans is a subject of debate among geneticists,
archaeologists, and anthropologists. A crucial question is the extent to which
Europeans are descended from the first European farmers in the Neolithic Age
7500 years ago or from Paleolithic hunter-gatherers who were present in Europe
since 40,000 years ago. Here we present an analysis of ancient DNA from early
European farmers. We successfully extracted and sequenced intact stretches of
maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from 24 out of 57 Neolithic
skeletons from various locations in Germany, Austria, and Hungary. We found
that 25% of the Neolithic farmers had one characteristic mtDNA type and that
this type formerly was widespread among Neolithic farmers in Central Europe.
Europeans today have a 150-times lower frequency (0.2%) of this mtDNA type,
revealing that these first Neolithic farmers did not have a strong genetic influence
on modern European female lineages. Our finding lends weight to a proposed
Paleolithic ancestry for modern Europeans.
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We Are Not Our Ancestors: Evidence for Discontinuity between Prehistoric and Modern Europeans
Journal of Genetic Genealogy 1:40-50, 2005
Ellen Levy-Coffman

The model of European genetic ancestry has recently shifted away from the Neolithic diffusion model towards an
emphasis on autochthonous Paleolithic origins. However, this new paradigm utilizes genetic reconstructions based
primarily on contemporary populations and, furthermore, is often promoted without regard to the findings of ancient
DNA studies. These ancient DNA studies indicate that contemporary European ancestry is not a living fossil of the
Paleolithic maternal deme; rather, demographic events during the Neolithic and post-Neolithic periods appear to have
had substantial impact on the European genetic record. In addition, evolutionary processes, including genetic drift,
adaptive selection and disease susceptibility, may have altered the patterns of maternal lineage frequency and
distribution in existing populations. As a result, the genetic history of Europe has undergone significant
transformation over time, resulting in genetic discontinuity between modern-day Europeans and their ancient
maternal forbearers.

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